норма калорий в деньA person’s weight remains unchanged, while the number of received energy is equal to the amount of energy spent. Therefore, the rate of calories per day depends on how much energy it consumes people during the day. About some common rules that suit everyone, without exception, can not speak, but certain patterns have long found.

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Weight and calories

The energy value or the caloric content of food is the amount of energy that a body gets in the complete absorption of the product. To determine the caloric content of the product it is burnt in a special device, and then measured the amount of energy produced by this heat. Each gram of protein or carbohydrate contains a little more than four calories, and fats are twice as calorie – about 9 kilocalories per gram.

The caloric theory gives a simple answer to the question, why some can’t gain weight, while others, on the contrary, vainly trying to get rid of extra pounds.

Man gets energy from food and spends her to maintain their livelihoods. If the number of received and expended energy equivalent, the weight does not change. If a person consumes more calories than you spend, then the weight increases. The reverse situation – if energy is more than comes from food. Accordingly, in order to lose weight, you need to get as much energy, how much is spent. And for those who want to lose weight, have more energy to spend than to receive.

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Dry figures and reality

The simplicity and elegance of the theory of caloric fascinating. But increasingly nutritionists say that the human body is more complicated than this scheme. Some foods are digested more quickly, some slowly, and some not at all fully. Much depends on the characteristics of food and peculiarities of human physiology. For example, products with a high content of fiber is digested slowly, and often not until the end. While carbohydrates are not simply provide the body with calories, but also stimulate the production of insulin, a hormone that is responsible for many physiological processes, including the deposition of fat in reserve.

Thus, it is not only the number of calories, but also their quality, i.e. what products those calories were obtained. An important role is played by the ratio of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and the presence in food of ballast substances. Do not forget about vitamins and minerals that are not independent of nutritional value, but are necessary for the body for life and can have a significant impact on the metabolism. If the food contains no vitamins and minerals, calories that come with this food, called “empty”.

Due to the individual characteristics of the organism the same activities can be for different people more or less energy-consuming.

For example, people with lots of muscle mass will spend more energy than people whose dominant fatty tissue. The weight people can be exactly the same.

Great role play features of the metabolism, which often depend on unexpected things – for example, eating habits. During the experiments it was proved that the fractional power allows you to increase the calorie intake without the unpleasant side effects in the idea of weight gain. At the same time, if the same number of calories to eat at one time, the body weight will inevitably grow.

Of course, such details of a table of calories and energy simply cannot be taken into account. All standards in this area too relative to blindly count on them. And yet, having an idea about the energy value of foods and how many calories spent on certain actions, you can understand what needs to change in their diet to achieve the weight of your dreams.

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Tentative norms

The rate of calorie content depends primarily on the weight and physical activity. Than the weight, the more energy is needed to make the body function normally. When this lack of energy weight will begin to fall. Also important gender: women have less muscle and more fat, and lower metabolic rate than men. With age, the metabolism slows down, therefore, the body needs all in a smaller and smaller amount of energy for sustaining their livelihoods. Energy demand increases in pregnant and lactating.

On average, women who don’t exercise per day is required from 2100 to 3000 calories in men above the norm – from 2600 to 3500.

However, many nutritionists believe that these standards are too high. But in any case it is believed that on the day an adult should get at least 1200 calories is the amount of energy consumed by the processes of respiration, digestion, excretion, and others.

Interestingly, the developers of trendy diets and such minimum standards are considered redundant: for example, during the diet vegetable soup a day, you can consume less than 1000 calories, and the popular “Japanese” standards and less – up to 700 calories. From the point of view of science, such extreme restrictions, of course, will help you lose weight (the laws of physics has not been canceled), but the results will be unexpected. Sooner or later the human body will adapt to chronic lack of energy and go into “save mode”. The metabolism will slow down, and in order to lose weight, have more and more to cut down on the diet. The body becomes accustomed to be satisfied with the minimum of energy, and after returning to a normal calorie intake will rapidly gain weight.

This is the famous “effect yo-yo”, which is overlooked by beginner restrictions. To avoid this effect, you should avoid fast diets, suggesting a strong reduction of calorie intake: it is better to lose weight slowly, but permanently, quickly and with unpleasant consequences for health and figure.

Maria Bykova

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